Study Notes of Vitamins

      
                                                                   
Vitamins

Vitamins
are a group of compound, required in small quantity for controlling metabolism
and body functioning
.

Vitamins are two typesfat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water
soluble
(B and C)






Fat
soluble Vitamins:

Vitamins (Name)
Rich food source
      Functions   
Deficiency      Diseases
A (Retinol)
Fish
liver oils, dairy product, liver, most leafy vegetables and carrots contain
carotene that can be converted into retinol
Needed
for normal growth and induce differentiation of cells

Regeneration
of rhodopsin in rod cells of the eyes. Maintain of normal vision

Essential
for immune system.

Dryskin,night blindness (Nyctalopia)
D (Calciferol)
Fish
oils, egg yolk and butter. It can be made by the action of sunlight on skin
Promotes
absorption of calcium from intestine.
Necessary
for formation of normal bone
Rickets
in children (soft bones that bend easily). Osteomalacia (painful bones) in
adults

E (Tocopherol)
Vegetables
oils, cereal products, whole grain, nuts, egg, butter etc
Formation
of red blood cells, affect muscles and reproductive system.
Maintain
healthy cholesterol  level
Mild
anaemia and sterility.
K (Phylloquinone)
Fresh,
dark green vegetables. Also made by gut bacteria
Formation
of prothrombin (involved in blood clotting
Delayed
clotting time.
May occur in new born babies before their gut bacteria become
established
                                                                                                                                       
Water
soluble Vitamins

Vitamins
Rich food
source
Function
Deficiency
Diseases
B(Thiamine)
Pork, cereals, nuts, seeds, yeast,
whole grain

Essential in converting glucose to energy
Important to nerve function
Beri-beri 
(weakness of limb muscles)
B2 (Riboflavin)
Milk , milk products, leafy vegetables, eggs
Involved in the formation of RBC, maintenance of
body tissue particularly skin and eyes
Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats and
lipids.
Cracked skin, blurred vision
B(Niacin)
Meat, whole grain, cereals, beans
Important for nervous system, digestive system and
skin health
Pellagra (severe skin problem, diarrhoea, dementia)
B5(Pentothenic Acid)
Whole grain cereals and legumes
Part for an enzyme needed for energy metabolism
Pellagra, dermatitis, diarrhoea
B6(Pyridoxine)
Meat, fish, egg, vegetables
Used to build RBC and maintain nerve tissue

Necessary for immune system functioning

Skin problem, nerve disorder



B9 (Folic Acid)
Leafy green vegetables, liver,
Necessary  to
build nucleic acid, which are essential 
for making new cells especially RBC
Anaemia
B12(Cyanocobalamine)
Liver, milk, fish, meat
Help build and maintain protective nerve sheath
Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis.
Pernicious anaemia, nerve disorder
C (Ascorbic
acid)
Citrus fruits , tomatoes, leafy vegetables
Protect cellular function
Important for immune system
Scurvy (bleeding of gums, teeth falling)

                                                                         

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